When a gunman was on the loose in the Kansas City metro area, law enforcement officials worked quickly to protect the community.
In the late summer of 2017, residents of an apartment complex called 9-1-1 to report gunshots being fired. Immediately, dispatchers sent first responders from the Independence Police Dept. and Independence Fire Dept. to assist those in need.
The dispatcher handling the call for service worked quickly to include all details in the computer aided dispatch (CAD) narrative, which allowed first responders to have instant, real-time updates on their mobile device terminals (MDTs).
"In a situation like this, information is vital," Independence FD's Battalion Chief Cindy Culp said. "Being able to share information back and forth with the police department from dispatch is helpful so that we can all work together on incidences that are criminal, medical or otherwise require a response from fire and police."
In this case, shots were fired at around 11 a.m. in the apartment complex. Witnesses who called 9-1-1 reported an individual saying she had been shot and that an individual was seen fleeing from the scene. Passersby attempted to run after the suspect, who then fired shots again and fled from the scene.
"Anytime you have a suspected shooter flee from a scene, it creates a potentially dangerous situation for everyone in the community," Culp said.
To protect the community, schools in the area were locked down and citizens were urged to stay indoors.
The suspect was captured quickly thereafter and arrested by authorities.
"This shooting highlighted one of the many incidences where the police and fire departments work together," Independence PD records administrator Joanna Whitt said. "We're lucky we had the ability to share information back and forth, so that all first responders were equipped with information that they needed as it pertained to their roles in the field."
Discovering what makes someone become a mass murderer is something the science community has yet to identify. Many of these individuals share similar characteristics, but what makes someone actually commit these acts is hard to define.
Some of those characteristics include a feeling of rejection or an abusive past. Others include setting fires while young or hurting animals. Then there are some that always exhibited a lack of empathy or self-centeredness. But not everyone who experiences these traits or experiences becomes a killer.
Triggering events can sometimes be tied to those who enact a mass shooting. A workplace shooting can occur after an individual has been fired; a shooting in the household could be the result of a breakup.
Mass shootings are generally carried out by one individual. Incidences that involve two or more shooters leave even more questions about the reasons behind the shooting to be answered.
In the attack on the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino in late 2015, nobody really knows what caused two individuals to kill 14 others.
What authorities do know is that the two shooters were a married couple. Syed Rizwan Farook and his wife Tashfeen Malik had left their baby in the care of a grandparent on the day of the attack. Farook was a U.S. citizen and Malik was a permanent resident. They met online initially, and eventually met face to face in Saudi Arabia when Farook came out for a visit.
Farook was a graduate of California State University and worked for the Inland Regional Center.
Together, the couple owned a Lexus, had recently attended a baby shower that coworkers had thrown for them, and seemed like an everyday family.
It is thought that Farook became self-radicalized and professed allegiance to the terrorist organization ISIS. It's unclear if the two shared ideological beliefs independently from each other, or if their ideologies grew once they got together.
While it's difficult to know what drove Farook and Malik to kill 14 individuals, it's important to know how they were identified and stopped.
According to Chief Jarrod Burguan of the San Bernardino Police Department, during the investigation that began as soon as law enforcement arrived on the scene, a witness to the shooting suggested that officers consider Farook as a suspect.
This tip was made based on the fact that Farook had been attending the training, but left at some point during and was no longer around. Farook's information was entered into the public safety records management software system utilized by the San Bernardino PD and officers were able to determine his address.
Another tip came in saying that the shooters had gotten away in a black SUV. When this information was made available to the public, a community member called 9-1-1 to report a suspicious SUV. That caller had gone so far as to memorize the license plate number of the SUV.
Investigators with the San Bernardino PD were able to use their public safety software yet again to look up this plate. From there, they determined that the SUV was a rental vehicle and that Farook had rented it.
When Farook and Malik were located not long afterwards, they were killed by police during a shootout.
This tragic incident serves as further evidence that although clues are not always prevalent before an attack, solving crimes and protecting the public is possible with a combination of data, technology and human instinct.
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